Anita Mackay

Dr Anita Mackay has been researching the compliance of Australian prisons with Australia’s international human rights law obligations since 2011. She has been an academic at La Trobe Law School (La Trobe University, Melbourne) since 2016 and is currently a senior lecturer. Dr Mackay was a research assistant on the ‘Applying Human Rights in Closed Environments: A Strategic Framework for Compliance’ Australian Research Council Linkage project (2011-2014) and co-edited Human Rights in Closed Environments with Professor Bronwyn Naylor and Associate Professor Julie Debeljak (2014). Prior to 2011, Dr Mackay worked as a senior legal officer in a variety of government policy areas, including family law and access to justice.


Towards Human Rights Compliance in Australian Prisons »

Authored by: Anita Mackay
Publication date: November 2020
Imprisoned people have always been vulnerable and in need of human rights protections. The slow but steady growth in the protection of imprisoned people’s rights over recent decades in Australia has mostly come from incremental change to prison legislation and common law principles. A radical influence is about to disrupt this slow change. Australian prisons and other closed environments will soon be subject to international inspections by the United Nations Subcommittee on the Prevention of Torture (SPT). This is because the Australian Government ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT) in December 2017. Australia’s international human rights law obligations as they apply to prisons are complex and stem from multiple Treaties. This book distils these obligations into five prerequisites for compliance, consistent with the preventive focus of the OPCAT. They are: reduce reliance on imprisonment align domestic legislation with Australia’s international human rights law obligations shift the focus of imprisonment to the goal of rehabilitation and restoration support prison staff to treat imprisoned people in a human rights–consistent manner ensure decent physical conditions in all prisons. Attention to each of these five areas will help all levels of Australian government and prison managers take the steps required to move towards compliance. Human-rights led prison reform is necessary both to improve the lives of imprisoned people and for Australia to achieve compliance with the international human rights legal obligations to which it has voluntarily committed itself. Awarded the 2021 Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology (ANZSOC) Christine M Alder book award for ‘an outstanding monograph or book which, in the opinion of the judges, has made a valuable and outstanding contribution to criminology’.