The Spanish Lake

The Pacific since Magellan, Volume I

Let Observation with extensive View, Survey Mankind, from China to Peru …’

O. H. K. Spate

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry

Spate, O. H. K. (Oskar Hermann Khristian), 1911-2000

The Spanish Lake

1. Explorers - Spain. 2. Pacific Area - Discovery and exploration. 3. Latin America - Economic conditions - History. 4. Latin America - Civilization - European influences. 5. Pacific Area - History. I. Title. (Series: Spate, O. H. K. [Oskar Hermann Khristian], 1911-2000. The Pacific since Magellan, Vol.1)

910.091823

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Dedication

In memoriam

ARMANDO CORTESÃO

homem da Renascença renascido

Table of Contents

Pacific winds and currents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Preliminary Data
1. Bibliographical
References
Abbreviations
General
2. General
Dates
Leagues
Money
Non-English names and terms
Shipping tonnages
Plates
Special usages
1. The World without the Pacific
Before Magellan
The shrunken Globe and the opened Sea
The European background
The lure of Asia
Renaissance ships and navigation
The European moment
2. Balboa, Magellan, and the Moluccas
Columbus and Portugal
The Alexandrine Bulls and the Treaty of Tordesillas
‘a peak in Darien’
Magellan: the man and his motives
The voyage: background and preparations
The voyage south
The voyage: the Straits and the Ocean—Mactan
The ends of the voyage: Victoria and Trinidad
Stalemate at Badajoz
3. Spain: Entry and Dominion
Beginnings on the Isthmus
Cortes on the Mar del Sur
Probes to the north
The drive to the south
The conquest of Peru
Aftermath: the first naval campaign
The farthest frontier: Chile
The nature of the Conquista
The organisation of the Indies
4. Magellan's Successors: Loaysa to Urdaneta
Malacca and the Moluccas
The Spanish riposte: Loaysa
America to the rescue: Saavedra
Zaragoza 1529: the Moluccas and the Straits
Two failures: Grijalva and Villalobos
Finding and founding a base: Legazpi and Urdaneta
The return achieved: Arellano and Urdaneta
Rica de Oro y de Plata; Hawaii?
5. Eastern Shores and Southern Lands
The Californias: Cermeño and Vizcaino
The eastern thresholds; Juan Fernandez (Figure 13, “NEW SPAIN TO CHILE: SAILING ROUTES. ”)
The Southland I: Mendaña and the Bay of the Star (Figs. Figure 14, “Mendaña, Quiros, and Torres” and Figure 15, “THE SPANIARDS IN MELANESIA, 1568–1606”)
The Southland II: Mendaña and the Holy Cross, Quiros and Doña Isabel
The Southland III: Quiros and the New Jerusalem
The Southland IV: Torres and New Guinea
The end of the Spanish saga
6. Asian Empires, Christian Trades
‘The Background of Eastern Seapower’
Macao and the ‘Great Ship to Japon’
The Philippines: dreams and realities
Manila and Macao
Japan united
Hideyoshi and the Jesuits
The Korean adventure
Hideyoshi and the Philippines
7. The Silver Tide
The Indies: people, land, and labour
Agriculture, livestock, workshops
Mining: Zacatecas to Potosi
New Spain and Peru
American silver and the world
The Pacific gains on Seville
The system of Seville
8. Seville and the Pacific
Seville: bases and fleets
The Isthmus as portal to the Pacific
The East Pacific trading zone
The Philippines and the Galleon trade
The Galleon trade: its geopolitical economy
9. The First Irruption: Francis Drake
Northern ways to the South Sea: Anian and the Three Brothers
The shift to the south and the rise of Drake
Interlude: Oxenham on the Mar del Sur
The problem of Drake's plan
Port St Julian: a new Plutarchan parallel
‘the Southermost knowne land’
The shores of silver
Nova Albion
The return and the reckoning
10. Riposte and Reprise
The Spanish riposte: Sarmiento
A mismanaged Odyssey
The Cities of Jesus and the King
Prisoners of starvation
The English reprise: Fenton and Cavendish
The last English foray: Richard Hawkins
The century's work
Index
A. The system of Seville and its rivals

List of Figures

Figure 1. Pacific winds and currents.
Plate I. THE PTOLEMAIC WORLD MAP.
Plate II. AN ELIZABETHAN GALLEON.
Plate III. CARAVELS
Plate IV. DUTCH FLUYTS.
Figure 2. CASTILLA DEL ORO.
Plate V. THE COLUMBAN INDIES: RUYSCH 1508.
Plate VI. THE AMERICAN INDIES: STOBNICZA 1512.
Plate VII. MAGELLAN IN THE STRAITS: THE HEROIC IMAGE.
Figure 3. MAGELLAN IN THE PACIFIC.
Figure 4. BEFORE AND AFTER MAGELLAN.
Plate VIII. THE AMERICAS, 1540.
Figure 5. THE ANTIMERIDAN OF THE TORDESILLAS LINE.
Figure 6. EL MAR DEL SUR: FIRST PHASE.
Figure 7. THE INVASION OF PERU.
Figure 8. PERU: GUAYAQUIL TO CALLAO.
Figure 9. PERU: CALLAO TO ARICA AND POTOSI
Figure 10. CHILE: COQUIMBO TO VALDIVIA
Figure 11. PHILIPPINES AND MOLUCCAS.
Figure 12. TO AND FROM THE PHILIPPINES, 1525–65.
Plate IX. THE PACIFIC BY MID-CENTURY: FORLANI 1565.
Plate X. THE NORTH PACIFIC: DE JODE 1578.
Figure 13. NEW SPAIN TO CHILE: SAILING ROUTES.
Figure 14. Mendaña, Quiros, and Torres
Figure 15. THE SPANIARDS IN MELANESIA, 1568–1606
Figure 16. MANILA, JAPAN, MACAO
Plate XI. MACAO, 1598.
Plate XII. THE GREAT SHIP AT NAGASAKI.
Plate XIII. MANILA AND LUZON, 1635.
Figure 17. JAPAN AND KOREA.
Plate XIV. LLAMAS AND MINING.
Figure 18. NEW SPAIN: THE SILVER FRONTIER
Plate XV. POTOSI AND THE CERRO.
Figure 19. ACAPULCO AND CALLAO.
Plate XVI. DRAKE'S PACIFIC: ORTELIUS 1570.
Figure 20. THE ENGLISH RAIDS, 1578–94
Figure 21. MAGELLANICA.
Plate XVII. THE GOLDEN HINDE.
Figure 22. BEFORE AND AFTER DRAKE.
Figure 23. NOVA ALBION.
Plate XVIII. DRAKE IN THE PACIFIC: ‘LA HERDIKE ENTERPRINSE’.
Plate XIX. SARMIENTO IN THE STRAITS.
Plate XX. PTOLEMY TRANSFORMED: WYTFLIET 1597.
Figure 24. PACIFIC OUTLINES, 1500–1600.
Figure 25. The system of Seville and its rivals.