3.3 The Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah: Tarekat Cukir

The Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah split into two after its leader, Kiai Musta‘in, joined Golkar in the second half of the 1970s. To coordinate especially followers of the Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah who were disappointed with Kiai Musta‘in's political actions, NU subsequently formally established another tarekat organisation called the Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah. Although this organisation is coordinating various tarekat, it is mainly represented and managed by followers of the Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah. In Jombang, the Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah is represented only by the followers of the Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah who separated from Kiai Musta‘in's leadership.

Although the establishment of the Tarekat Cukir was a reaction against Kiai Musta‘in, its ritual practices are those of Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah. The formation of this tarekat initially served to coordinate those former followers of Kiai Musta‘in who were bewildered and disappointed with his political steps. Therefore, the formation of Tarekat Cukir and the Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah was just a slight transformation of the same Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah formerly led by Kiai Musta‘in and a similar association established in 1957 by NU respectively.

The embryo of the Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah was created in Jombang. Many kiai asked NU to do something following their dissatisfaction with the political actions of Kiai Musta‘in. Muhammad Baidlowi, the NU leader in Jombang, then initiated the formation of another association, the Tarekat Nahdlatul Ulama. Muhammad Baidlowi was uncomfortable with this since he had a close relationship with Kiai Musta‘in (his wife is a sister of Kiai Musta‘in's wife). Muhammad Baidlowi thus tried to involve other NU leading figures, who also had close relations with Kiai Musta‘in, to reduce the possible negative reaction of Kiai Musta‘in. The document for the formation of the Tarekat Nahdlatul Ulama in Jombang was therefore signed by Muhammad Baidlowi (chairman), Najib Wahab (president) and Khatib (secretary). Muhammad Baildowi chose Najib Wahab instead of Kiai Adlan Ali, who was formally more appropriate since he was higher in rank than Najib, because Najib Wahab was the brother of Kiai Musta‘in's wife. Khatib, on the other hand, had a familial relationship with Kiai Musta‘in, since his father was Kiai Musta‘in's uncle[28]. The establishment of the Tarekat Nahdlatul Ulama in Jombang was then put forward to the NU congress in Semarang in 1979. It then became the stimulus for the formation of the Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah.

Kiai Adlan Ali from Jombang was promoted to be the main murshid of the Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah (the Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah version). When he joined the Tarekat Rejoso, he was a khalifa of Kiai Musta‘in. He received his ijaza irshad from Kiai Muslih Abdurrahman (Mranggen, Semarang). With this ijaza irshad Kiai Adlan established another Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah organisation with a silsila which was separate from the Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa naqsyabandiyah led by Kiai Musta‘in. 

The Silsilah of the Murshid of the Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah (Tarekat Cukir Version):

  1. The Prophet Muhammad

  2. ‘Ali Ibn Abi Thalib

  3. Husein Ibn Ali

  4. Zainal-Abidin

  5. Muhammad Al-Baqir

  6. Ja‘far Al-Sadiq

  7. Musa al-Kazim

  8. Abu Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Musa Al-Riza

  9. Ma‘ruf Al-Karkhi

  10. Sari A-Saqati

  11. Abu Qasim Al-Junaid Al-Baghdadi

  12. Abu Bakr Al-Shibli

  13. ‘Abdul Wahid Al-Tamimi

  14. ‘Abdul Faraj Al-Tartusi

  15. Abu Hasan ‘Ali Al-Hakkari

  16. Abu Sa‘id Al-Makhzumi

  17. ‘Abdul Qadir Al-Jailani

  18. ‘Abdul Aziz

  19. Muhammad Al-Hattak

  20. Syams Al-Din

  21. Syarif Al-Din

  22. Zain Al-Din

  23. Nur Al-Din

  24. Wali Al-Din

  25. Husam Al-Din

  26. Yahya

  27. Abi Bakr

  28. ‘Abd Rahim

  29. ‘Usman

  30. Kamal Al-Din

  31. ‘Abdul Fattah

  32. Muhammad Murad

  33. Syams Al-Din

  34. Ahmad Khatib Al-Sambasi

  35. ‘Abdul Karim

  36. Asnawi Banten         36. Ahmad Hasbullah ibn Muhammad Madura

  37. ‘Abdul Lathif Banten       37. (Muhammad) Khalil

  38. Muslih Abdurrahman       38. (Muhammad) Romly Tamim

                    39. (Muhammad) Adlan Ali

 

In addition, the promotion of Kiai Adlan to the murshid of this new tarekat organisation automatically excluded Kiai Musta‘in in his silsilah of the Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah. This was because the ijaza irshad received by Kiai Muslih Abdurrahman was not derived from Kiai Musta‘in. Kiai Muslih Abdurrahman, instead, received his ijaza irshad from Kiai ‘Abdul Latief; and Kiai ‘Abdul Latief obtained his ijaza irshad from Kiai Asnawi Banten, who, together with Kiai Ahmad Chasbullah received his ijaza irshad from Kiai ‘Abdul Karim Banten. According to another source[29], Kiai Adlan also received ijaza irshad from Kiai Romly Tamim, Kiai Musta‘in's father (see the silsilah above).

Kiai Adlan Ali was also promoted to the national leader of the Jam‘iyah Ahli Thoriqoh Al-Mu‘tabaroh An-Nahdliyah. He died in 1991. There are now three murshid of the Tarekat Cukir in Jombang who can conduct bai‘a for followers or give ijaza irshad to a murshid candidate. The three murshid are Kiai Makki, who used to be one of the khalifa of Kiai Musta‘in, Kiai Hisyam and Kiai Sholihin.

In addition to these three murshid, commonly called the khalifa kubro (lit. major khalifa), the Tarekat Cukir has four khalifa sughro (lit. minor khalifa). They are Kiai Abdullah Sajad, Kiai Khoerul Anwar, Kiai Rifai Marzuki and Kiai Abdul Hamid. While the khalifa kubro are classified as murshid, the khalifa sughro cannot conduct bai‘a for the followers. The khalifa sughro are the main assistants to the murshid, either in regard to running the tarekat organisationally or performing the tarekat ritually. It is evident therefore that, in terms of the structure of either murshidship or khalifaship, the Tarekat Cukir is different from the Tarekat Rejoso, which does not acknowledge such a division in regard to its khalifaship [30].

In conducting its khususiya, the Tarekat Cukir follows the same patterns as the Tarekat Rejoso, since they have the same roots and history. Although the formation of the Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah (Cukir version) was a reaction against Kiai Musta‘in's political actions, its khalifa throughout East Java have continued to be successful in managing and coordinating (recruiting) former followers of the Tarekat Qadiriyah Wa Naqsyabandiyah led by Kiai Musta‘in. A significant number of former followers of Kiai Musta‘in have joined this tarekat. In Jombang, the number of followers of this tarekat seems to be higher than that of the Tarekat Rejoso. According to its khalifa, Kiai Abdullah Sajad, there are about 40,000 people affiliated (as members) with this tarekat in Jombang. This compares with about ten to fifteen thousand followers of Tarekat Rejoso, a figure suggested by one of its staff. It is, however, difficult to get exact numbers, since neither tarekat has accurate data about followers. The figures may therefore be exaggerated. The followers are spread out in all regions of Jombang, and they are involved in local khususiya. The  Tarekat Cukir has around 73 places of khususiya, each of which is led by an imam who is assisted by one to three badal (lit. a substitute)[31].

Another important note in regard to Tarekat Cukir is that it continues to support PPP although this party has changed its Islamic base with Pancasila, and NU has formally freed its members from affiliation with PPP. The consistency of this sufi organisation in regard to its support for PPP seems to be related to the circumstances of its origin. Since it has been affiliated with PPP for a long time, and the PPP symbol was often used in its big ritual events, this sufi order in Jombang is also known as the ‘Tarekat PPP’[32]. On the other hand, the Tarekat Rejoso is explicitly affiliated with Golkar, although it is very likely that the support of the followers for this party in elections varies. The Tarekat Rejoso is also commonly called the Tarekat Golkar.

This discussion shows that the organisations of tarekat in Jombang are related to political developments in NU. Although the formation of the Tarekat Cukir was legitimated politically by NU and aimed to coordinate kiai and followers who were disappointed with Kiai Musta‘in's political actions, all kiai of the Tarekat Rejoso in present day Jombang continue to affiliate with NU. The pattern of political support of tarekat organisation remains the same regardless of NU's decision to free its members to affiliate with any political organisation. The Tarekat Cukir continues to support PPP, while the Tarekat Rejoso supports Golkar.