This thesis has nine chapters, including an introduction (Chapter I) and conclusion (Chapter IX). Chapters II and III describe the nature of the pesantren and the tarekat. These institutions are attached to kiaiship and are managed informally by NU Almost all the great kiai have a pesantren, and some of them are also members of tarekat. These chapters are generally descriptive and focus on pesantren and two tarekat organisations.
The nature of kiaiship and how the kiai leadership is accepted by society are discussed in Chapter IV. The chapter also describes how Muslims in Jombang are socially fragmented under a variety of kiai leadership. Although their affiliation with certain tarekat has reduced this fragmentation, since the tarekat can accommodate a large number of Muslims from various districts of Jombang, the fragmentation still exists. This is not only because there are various tarekat movements, but also because the affiliation of Muslims with a tarekat is affected by politics. The politics of the tarekat are discussed in Chapter V and clearly show this fragmentation. The chapter also describes the involvement of NU in the conflict between the kiai managing the tarekat and the strict affiliation of NU with one political party which has resulted in widespread conflict among kiai in Jombang.
Chapter VI discusses the influence of Islam on electoral behaviour, and Chapter VII analyses the influence of the kiai's politics. If the kiai is a charismatic figure, to what extent can he influence Muslims’ political behaviour? This chapter also discusses the change in the kiai's perception of the government. Chapter VIII discusses the effort of the kiai to remould their relationship with other Muslim groups. They are in the process of reformulating the essence of ukhuwa Islamiya (Muslim brotherhood). The chapter also describes Muslim efforts to expand da‘wa (preaching) activities. These efforts, for NU members, are a manifestation of their determination to use NU as a socio-religious organisation as it was originally conceptualised when NU was established. For Muslims in general, this is a religious duty.